Understanding the climates of Earth and other planets represents one of the great intellectual challenges of our era, and in the case of Earth this understanding is of great practical significance. Progress in attaining such an understanding requires the application of knowledge and techniques from many scientific disciplines, including the physics of radiative and convective heat transfer, geophysical and computational fluid dynamics, cloud microphysics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, geochemistry, biology, and changes of the Earth’s surface over long periods of geological time.  Beyond improving fundamental understanding, the nexus of climate science, energy, water, and health is increasingly important.


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